Mycology Laboratory

The mission of Mycology Laboratory of IMT AvH  is:

  • To provide mycological diagnosis´ services to the patients of Cayetano Heredia National Hospital and those referred from other hospitals in the country.
  • To  train national and international health workers, undergraduate and post –graduate students of the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia ( UPCH )
  • Develop research with the participation of highly qualified human resources and the use of new technologies.

An average of 4000 samples are processed per year at this lab and is considered a reference laboratory for the diagnosis of fungal diseases. Since 2005 the laboratory of mycology successfully passes the performance evaluations of the American College of Pathologists , for testing ink , latex agglutination for C. neoformans and identification of yeasts and since 2010 for in vitro susceptibility testing for yeast .

The areas of interest are related to the epidemiology of candidiasis and cryptococcosis , detection of yeasts to antifungal resistance in the Peruvian population and the antifungal activity of products from plants . Also, since 1999 the laboratory staff involved in clinical research studies with new antifungal drugs.


Research Areas

  • Epidemiology of prevalent mycosis on Peru
  • Epidemiology of prevalent Mycosis on HIV patients:.
  • Drug resistance fungus



Laboratory Coordinator:

bustamante   Beatriz Bustamante, MD


Research Team: 


  • Rosario Rojas, Ph.D
  • Edgar Neyra, MSc
  • TM. Susy Araníbar
  • Tec. Lab. Rosario Velando
  • Tec. Lab. Susana Grigoletto

Collaboration and Funding

Relevant Publications

  • Espinel-Ingroff A, Turnidge J, Alastruey-Izquierdo A, Dannaoui E, Garcia-Effron G, Guinea J, Kidd S, Pelaez T, Sanguinetti M, Meletiadis J, Botterel F, Bustamante B, et al.Posaconazole MIC Distributions for Aspergillus fumigatus Species Complex by Four Methods: Impact of cyp51A Mutations on Estimation of Epidemiological Cutoff Values. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2018 Mar 27;62(4).
  • Wanat KA, Dominguez AR, Carter Z, Legua P, Bustamante B, Micheletti RG. Bedside diagnostics in dermatology: Viral, bacterial, and fungal infections. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2017 Aug;77(2):197-218. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2016.06.034.
  • Rodriguez L, Bustamante B, Huaroto L, Agurto C, Illescas R, Ramirez R, Diaz A, Hidalgo J.A multi-centric Study of Candida bloodstream infection in Lima-Callao, Peru:Species distribution, antifungal resistance and clinical outcomes. PLoS One. 2017 Apr 18;12(4):e0175172. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0175172.
  • Concha-Velasco F, González-Lagos E, Seas C, Bustamante B.Factors associated with early mycological clearance in HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis. PLoS One. 2017 Mar 29;12(3):e0174459. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0174459.
  • Bustamante B, Denning DW, Campos PE. Serious fungal infections in Peru. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2017 Jun;36(6):943-948. doi: 10.1007/s10096-017-2924-9.
  • Oyarce JA, García C, Alave J, Bustamante B.Epidemiological clinical and laboratory characterization of sporotrichosis in patients of a tertiary care hospital in Lima, Peru, from 1991 to 2014. Rev Chilena Infectol. 2016 Jun;33(3):315-21. doi: 10.4067/S0716-10182016000300012.
  • Mosqueira JR, Soto LM, Soria J, Bustamante AB,Cáceres J, Fuentes Rivera GM. Septic arthritis due to underlying Scedosporium apiospermum chronic osteomyelitis. Report of one case and brief review of the literature. JMID 2016; 6 (3): 192-196.
  • Bustamante B, Ahmed SA, De Hoog GS, Seas C, Van De Sande WW. Phaeoacremonium sphinctrophorum as a Novel Agent of Eumycetoma.JAMA Dermatol. 2016 May 25. doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2016.1310
  • Oyarce JA, García C, Alave J, Bustamante B. Caracterización epidemiológica, clínica y de laboratorio de esporotricosis en pacientes de un hospital de tercer nivel en Lima-Perú, entre los años 1991 y 2014.Rev Chilena Infectol 2016; 33 (3): 315-321.
  • Mejia F, Bustamante B, Gotuzzo E. A 35-year-old Male Farmer from Peru with a Chronic Ulcer and Multiple Nodular Lesions on the Arm. Chapter 34, In: Clinical cases in tropical medicine. Edited by Camilla Rothe. First Edition, Elsevier 2014.
  • Bustamante B, Martins MA, Bonfietti LX, Szeszs MW, Jacobs J, et al. Species distribution and antifungal susceptibility profile of Candida isolates from bloodstream infections in Lima-Peru. J Med Microbiol. 2014; 63:855-60..
  • Espinel-Ingroff A, Pfaller MA, Bustamante B, Canton E, Fothergill A, et al. A multi-laboratory study of epidemiological cutoff values for azole-resistance detection of eight Candida spp. to fluconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2014; 58(4): 2006-12, doi: 10.1128/AAC.02615-13.
  • Pfaller MA, Espinel-Ingroff A, Bustamante B, Canton E, Diekema DJ, et al. Multicenter Study of Anidulafungin and Micafungin MIC Distributions and Epidemiological Cutoff Values for Eight Species of Candida and the CLSI M27-A3 Broth Microdilution Method. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2013; 58(2): 916-22, doi: 10.1128/AAC.02020-13.
  • Espinel-Ingroff A, Arendrup MC, Pfaller MA, Bonfietti LX, Bustamante B, et al. Interlaboratory variability of Caspofungin MICs for Candida spp. Using CLSI and EUCAST methods: should the clinical laboratory be testing this agent? Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2013; 57(12): 5836-42, doi: 10.1128/AAC.01519-13.
  • Bustamante B, Seas C, Salomon M, Bravo F. Lobomycosis successfully treated with posaconazole. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2013; 88(6): 1207-8, doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.12-0428.
  • Leon M, Alave J, Bustamante B, Gotuzzo E, Seas C. A probable association between HTLV-1 and endemic mycosis in Latin America. J Infect Dev Ctries 2012; Mar 12;6(3):301.
  • Larsen RA, Bauer M, Pitisuttithum P, Sanchez A, Tansuphaswadikul S, Wuthiekanun V, Peacock SJ, Simpson AJ, Fothergill AW, Rinaldi MG, Bustamante B, Thomas AM, Altomstone R, Day NP, White NJ. Correlation of Susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans to Amphotericin B with Clinical Outcome. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2011; 55(12): 5624-30.
  • Leon M, Alave J, Martinez D, Bustamante B, Rodriguez M, Seas C. Symptomatic duodenal cryptococcosis in HIV-infected individuals. Med Mycol 2011; Feb 28. doi:10.3109/13693786.2011.563325
  • Alave J, Bustamante B, Soto L, Caceres J, Seas C. Acalculous Cholecystitis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum in a severely immunosuppressed HIV-infected patient. J Infect Dev Ctries 2011; 5(3): 235-8.
  • Bustamante B. Campos PE. Sporotrichosis Treatment: Overview and Update. Curr Fungal Infect Rep 2011; 5:42-48.
  • León M, Alave J, Chaparro E, Bustamante B, Seas C. A 13-year-old boy with ataxia 4 weeks after a near-drowning accident. Clin Infect Dis 2010; 51(3): 326-7, 363-4.
  • León M, Alave J, Bustamante B, Cok J, Gotuzzo E, Seas C. Human T lymphotropic virus 1 and paracoccidioidomycosis: a probable association in Latin America. Clin Infect Dis 2010; 51(2):250-1.
  • Bustamante B, Campos P. Eumycetoma. UptoDate [Online version 17.2] 2009 may 1 [cited 2009 jun 18] Available from:">URL:
  • Bustamante B, Lama J, Mosquera C, Soto L. Sporotrichosis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Peruvian Patients: Two Case Reports and Literature Review. Infect Dis Clin Pract 2009; 17(2): 78-83.
  • Dammert P, Bustamante B, Ticona E, Llanos-Cuentas A, Huaroto L, Chávez VM, CamposPE. Treatment of cryptococcal meningitis in Peruvian AIDS Patients using amphotericin B and fluconazole. J Infect 2008; 57(3):260-5.
  • Kovarick CL, Neyra E, Bustamante B. Evaluations of cats as the source of endemic sporotrichosis in Perú. Med Mycol 2008; 46: 53-6.
  • Kauffman CA, Bustamante B, Chapman SW, Pappas P. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of sporotrichosis: 2007 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 2007; 45:1255-1265.
  • Bustamante B, Campos P. Eumycetoma. In: Atlas of Fungal Infections. Second edition. Series Editor. Gerard L Mandell MD. Editor. Richard D. Diamond MD. Developed by: Current Medicine Group Ltd. 2006.
  • Raad II, Graybill JR, Bustamante AB, Cornely OA, Gaona-Flores V, Afif C, et al. Safety of long-term oral posaconazole use in the treatment of refractory invasive fungal infections. Clin Infect Dis 2006; 42(12):1726-34.
  • Rojas R, Bustamante B, Ventosilla P, Fernadez I, Caviedes L, Gilman RH, Lock O, Hammond GB. Larvicidal, antimycobacterial and antifungal compounds from the bark of the Peruvian plant Swartzia polyphylla DC. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2006; 54(2):278-9.
  • Negroni R, Tobon A, Bustamante B, Shikanai-Yasuda MA, Patino H, Restrepo A. Posaconazole treatment of refractory eumycetoma and chromoblastomycosis. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2005; 47(6):339-46.
  • Soto L, Legua P, Gotuzzo E, Echevarria J, Bustamante B, Maguiña C, Herrera V, Mendoza A. Paciente inmunosuprimido con fiebre y radiografía con patrón miliar. Revista Médica Herediana 2005; 16 (3):218-222.
  • Pitisuttithum P, Negroni R, Graybill JR, Bustamante B, Pappas P, Chapman S, HareRS, Hardalo CJ. Activity of posaconazole in the treatment of central nervous system fungal infections. J Antimicrob Chemother 2005; 56(4):745-55.
  • Neyra E, Fonteyne PA, Swinne D, Fauche F, Bustamante B, Nolard N. Epidemiology of human sporotrichosis investigated by amplified fragment length polymorphism. J Clin Microbiol 2005; 43 (3):1348-52.
  • Rojas R, Doroteo V, Bustamante B, Bauer J, Lock O. Antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activity of Gentianella nitida. Fitoterapia 2004; 75(7-8):754-7.
  • Chapman SW, Pappas P, Kauffmann C, Smith EB, Dietze R, Tiraboschi-Foss N, Restrepo A, Bustamante B, Opper C, Emady-Azar S, Bakshi R. Comparative evaluation of the efficacy and safety of two doses of terbinafine (500 and 1000 mg/day) in the treatment of cutaneous or lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis. Mycoses 2004; 47:62-68.
  • Bustamante B, Campos PE. Sporotrichosis: a forgotten disease in the drug research agenda. Expert Rev Anti-Infect Ther 2004; 2(1): 85-94.
  • Pappas P, Bustamante B, Ticona E, Hamill RJ, Johnson P, Reboli A, Aberg J, Ellner J, Hasbun R, Hsu H. Recombinant Interferon Gamma as adjunctive therapy for acute cryptococcal meningitis. JID 2004; 189: 2185-91.
  • Osores F, Maguiña C, Ferrufino JC, Velando R, Agapito J, Verdonck K, Nolasco O, Arevalo J, Bustamante B, Gotuzzo E. Micosis ganglionar: Reporte de 7 casos en el Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia, Lima-Perú y revisión de la literatura. Rev Med Hered 2004; 15: 211-217.
  • Delgado WA, Meneses L, Gotuzzo E, Bustamante B. Criptococosis gingival en un paciente con SIDA. Rev Estomatol Herediana 2004; 14: 78-81.


  • Culture
  • Serological test: 

           -A. fumigatus

           -Aspergillus spp.

           -H. capsulatum 

           -P. brasiliensis 

           -Latex aglutination for C. neoformans



Contact Information

Address: IMTAvH, 1er piso

Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia

Av. Honorio Delgado 262

Urb. Ingeniería, San Martin de Porres. Lima - Perú.



+511 4823910

+511 4823903


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