Laboratory of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (“LIP”)

 The Laboratory of Pediatric Infectious Diseases is dedicated to the study of infectious disease occurring during childhood, including the diagnosis, treatment and prevention. The main interest are the protective factors of breast milk, with special emphasis in the study of antimicrobial properties of lactoferrin and the determination of protective antibodies in colostrum and mature milk. Furthermore, we study the epidemiology of pneumococcus in a local area, based on the serotype determination, antimicrobial resistance and virulence factors. Additionally, we are developing clinical trials to determine the effect of lactoferrin for the prevention of neonatal sepsis in premature newborns. 


Research Areas

 1.     Protective factors in breast milk

  • Evaluation of the antimicrobial effect of lactoferrin in vitro and in vivo (cellular cultures, animal models)
  • Lactoferrin for the prevention of neonatal sepsis
  • Determine the concentration of lactoferrin in breast milk and associated factors
  • Specific immunoglobulins (IgA) in breast milk and colostrum

 2.     Pneumococcus

  • Asymptomatic colonization in children: circulating serotype surveillance and antimicrobial resistance
  • Pneumococcal invasive disease in children and adults
  • Antimicrobial resistance and molecular mechanisms of resistance
  • Phenotypic and genotypic factors of virulence (biofilm)
  • Molecular diagnostic methods
  • Serotyping by molecular methods

 3.     Neonatal Sepsis

  • Lactoferrin for the prevention of neonatal sepsis (clinical trials)
  • Molecular methods for the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis
  • Epidemiology of the neonatal hospital-acquired infections
  • Neurodevelopment evaluation and late neonatal sepsis




Laboratory Coordinator:

ochoa  Dra. Theresa Ochoa W.

Investigation team:

  • Erik Mercado, MSc (c)
  • David Durand, MSc (c)
  • Maribel Riveros, MSc (c)
  • Maria Susana Rueda, MD
  • Indira Lengua, MSc (c)
  • Luis Cabrera, MSc (c)
  • Karina Mendonza, MSc
  • Deborath Aguirre, BSc
  • Madhelli Marcelo, BSc
  • Daniel Goicochea
  • Hayde Guzman

Colaboration and funding


Main Contributors:

Most Recent Projects 

  • International Prospective Observational Cohort Study of Zika in Infants and Pregnancy (ZIP study) NIH (NICHD, NIAID, NIEHS) Protocol Number 16-0045.
  • Burden of Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infections: Disease Incidence, Adequacy of Diagnostic Assessment, Disease Outcome, and Societal Costs. NIH (NIAID-DMID-NIH-AI-2014028)
  • Invasive pneumococcal disease in Peruvian Children. Pfizer laboratories, Peru.
  • Recognition of the primary infection by Pneumocystis in infants: a silent threat to public health. ERANet- LAC (Network of the European Union, Latin America and the Caribbean Countries on Joint Innovation and Research Activities).


 Highlighted Articles 

  • Ochoa TJ, Zegarra J, Cam L, Llanos R, Pezo A, Cruz K, Zea-Vera A, Cárcamo C, Campos M, Bellomo S; NEOLACTO Research Group. Randomized Controlled Trial of Lactoferrin for Prevention of Sepsis in Peruvian Neonates <2500 grams. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2015 Jun;34(6):571-6
  • Ochoa TJ; Chea-Woo E; Baiocchi N; Pecho I; Campos M; Prada A; Valdiviezo G; Lluque A; Lai D; Cleary TG. Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Trial of Bovine Lactoferrin for Prevention of Diarrhea in Children. J Pediatr. 2013 Feb;162(2):349-56.
  • Durand D; Ochoa TJ; Bellomo SM; Contreras CA; Bustamante VH; Ruiz J; Cleary TG; Detection of Secretory Immunoglobulin A in Human Colostrum as Mucosal Immune Response against Proteins of the Type Three Secretion System of Salmonella, Shigella and Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013 Oct;32(10):1122-6.
  • Turin CG, Zea-Vera A, Rueda MS, Mercado E, Carcamo CP, Zegarra J, Bellomo S, Cam L, Castaneda A, Ochoa TJ; NEOLACTO Research Group. Lactoferrin concentration in breast milk of mothers of low-birth-weight newborns. J Perinatol. 2017 May;37(5):507-512.
  • Zambruni M, Villalobos A, Somasunderam A, Westergaard S, Nigalye M, Turin CG, Zegarra J, Bellomo S, Mercado E, Ochoa TJ, Utay NS. Maternal and pregnancy-related factors affecting human milk cytokines among Peruvian mothers bearing low-birth-weight neonates. J Reprod Immunol. 2017 Apr;120:20-26.
  • Ochoa T.J. ; Egoavil M. ; Castillo M.E. ; Reyes I. ; Chaparro E. ; Silva W. ; Campos F. ; Sáenz A. Invasive pneumococcal diseases among hospitalized children in Lima, Peru. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2010 Aug;28(2):121-7
  • Davalos L, Terrazas Y, Quintana A, Egoavil M, Sedano K, Castillo ME, Reyes I, Chaparro E, Silva W, Campos F, Saenz A, Hernandez R, Águila OD, Pinto DG, Ochoa TJ. Epidemiologic, clinical and bacteriologic characteristics of pneumococcal meningitis in pediatric patients from Lima, Peru. Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica. 2016 Jul-Sep;33(3):425-431.
  • Horna G, Molero ML, Benites L, Roman S, Carbajal L, Mercado E, Castillo ME, Zerpa R, Chaparro E, Hernandez R, Silva W, Campos F, Saenz A, Reyes I, Villalobos A, Ochoa TJ. Oxacillin disk diffusion testing for the prediction of penicillin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae.Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2016 Aug;40(1):57-63.
  • Hawkins P, Mercado E, Chochua S, Castillo ME, Reyes I, Chaparro E, Gladstone R, Bentley SD, Breiman RF, Metcalf BJ, Beall B, Ochoa TJ, McGee L. Key features of invasive pneumococcal isolates recovered in Lima, Peru determined through whole genome sequencing. Int J Med Microbiol. 2017Oct;307(7):415-421Jul 22.
  • Zea-Vera A, Turín CG, Rueda MS, Guillén-Pinto D, Medina-Alva P, Tori A, Rivas M, Zegarra J, Castañeda A, Cam L, Ochoa TJ. [Use of lumbar puncture in the evaluation of late-onset sepsis in low birth weight neonates].Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica. 2016 Jun;33(2):278-82.
  • Zea-Vera A, Turin CG, Ochoa TJ. [Unifying criteria for late neonatal sepsis: proposal for an algorithm of diagnostic surveillance].Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica. 2014 Apr;31(2):358-63.


  • Neumococco Diagnostic PCR                                                       
  • Neumococo Determination PCR


Contact Info

Address: LID, laboratorio Nº 303.

Av. Honorio Delgado 430

Urb. Ingeniería, San Martin de Porres. Lima - Perú.


Phone: 51-1-319-0000 anexo 2715


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