Enteric Diseases, Nutrition and Antimicrobial Resistance Laboratory (“LEEN-RA”)

The “LEEN” consists of a multidisciplinary team of physicians, biologists and medical technologists dedicated to the study of enteric pathogens and to the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of childhood diarrhea, with a special emphasis in diarrheagenic Escherichiacoli strains. We are also interested in breast milk protective factors, especially lactoferrin. In the antimicrobial resistance field, we study the community and hospital-acquired pathogens antibiotic resistance mechanisms and epidemiology. The “LEEN” works in collaboration with many national and international institutions and we look forward in always maintaining multidisciplinary and collaborative activities in the different fields of interest. 


Research Areas

  1. 1.     Enteric pathogens and Diarrhea

  • Epidemiological surveillance, prevention and control of diarrheal diseases
  • Molecular diagnosis of enteric pathogens
  • Hospital-acquired enteric pathogens
  • The Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile; vaccine clinical trial.
  • Traveler's diarrhea 
  • Phylogeny and virulence factors of diarrheagenic E. coli strains (EPEC, ETEC, STEC, EAEC, DAEC, and EIEC), Shigella and Campylobacter
  • Enteric viruses: rotavirus and norovirus
  • Hospital-acquired and enteric pathogens antibiotic resistance; molecular mechanisms of resistance

  1. 2.     Nutrition

  • Nutrition and infection: malnutrition (malnourishment) and acute diarrheal disease; environmental enteropathy
  • Prevention and treatment of malnutrition
  • Breast milk protective factors for prevention of childhood diarrhea
  • Lactoferrin in enteric pathogens and childhood diarrhea

  1. 3.     Antimicrobial resistance

  • Epidemiology  of  hospital-acquired infections  and  antimicrobial resistance
  • Epidemiology of the community-acquired infections  and  antimicrobial resistance
  • Epidemiology and resistance mechanisms in selected pathogens: E. coli, Klebsiella, Salmonella (typhi and non-typhi), Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas and S. aureus 



Laboratory Coordinator:

Coralith Garcia min  Dra. Coralith Garcia

Research Team:

  • Theresa Ochoa W. MD. 
  • Fiorella Krapp, MD PhD (c)
  • Ana Prada, MSc.
  • Claudia Lizette Banda, MD
  • Maribel Riveros, MSc (c)
  • David Durand, MSc (c)
  • Erik Mercado, MSc (c)
  • Aurora Lizeth Astocondor, , MSc (c)
  • Karen Lisbet Ocampo 
  • Hayde Guzman

Collaboration and Funding


Main Contributors


Most Recent Projects 

  • Antimicrobial stewardship in the first level medical care facilities and antimicrobial resistance surveillance in community-acquired infections
  • Clinical impact  of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae bacteremias in 10 Latin American countries
  • Salmonella Typhi and non Typhi with decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and molecular characterization of quinolone resistance
  • Bacterial causes of febrile diseases in hospitals from Iquitos, Peru
  • Isolation of Staphylococcus aureus in reported cases of Tropical Pyomyositis: genotypic and phenotypic characteristics
  • Lactoferrin for the prevention of Neonatal Sepsis
  • Enteric Diseases, enteropathy and malnutrition
  • Antimicrobial resistance of Enterobacteriaceae in Peru
  • Immune and genetic determinants of the host in response to Norovirus infections in developing countries
  • Safety and Efficacy evaluation of a Fish protein concentrate in the menu of children under 36 months.
  • Infant Formula effects, Instant Formula constitutive proteins and Lactoferrin supplemented Formula in infections caused by enteropathogens.
  • Lactoferrin for the prevention of sepsis in young infants
  • Invasive pneumococcal disease in Lima (IPD-II)
  • Epidemiologic study of Syncytial Respiratory Virus (SRV) in premature infants from Lima.
  • Randomized and controlled study: Bovine lactoferrin for the prevention of childhood diarrhea. 

Highlighted Articles 


  • García C, Astocondor L, Rojo-Bezares B, Jacobs J, Saenz Y. Molecular characterization of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producer Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates causing neonatal sepsis in Peru. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2016 Feb 3;94(2):285-8.
  • García C, Acuña-Villaorduña A, Dulanto A, Vandendriessche S, Hallin M, Jacobs J, Denis O. Dynamic of nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among healthcare workers through a longitudinal study in Peru. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2016 Jan;35(1):89-93.
  • García C, Lejon V, Horna G, Astocondor L, Vanhoof R, Bertrand S, Jacobs J. Intermediate susceptibility to ciprofloxacin among Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates in Lima, Peru. J Clin Microbiol. 2014 Mar;52(3):968-70.
  • García C, Hallin M, Deplano A, Denis O, Sihuincha M, de Groot R, Gotuzzo E,Jacobs J. Staphylococcus aureus causing tropical pyomyositis, Amazon Basin, Peru. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013 Jan;19(1):123-5.
  • García C, Horna G, Linares E, Ramírez R, Tapia E, Velásquez J, Medina V,Guevara J, Urbina M, Zevallos S, Espinoza N, Samalvides F, Jacobs J. Antimicrobial drug resistance in Peru. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012 Mar;18(3):520-1.
  • Medina AM, Rivera FP, Pons MJ, Riveros M, Gomes C, Bernal M, Meza R, Maves RC, Huicho L, Chea-Woo E, Lanata CF, Gil AI, Ochoa TJ, Ruiz J. Comparative analysis of antimicrobial resistance in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolates from two paediatric cohort studies in Lima, Peru. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2015 Aug;109(8):493-502.
  • Lluque A, Mosquito S, Gomes C, Riveros M, Durand D, Tilley DH, Bernal M, Prada A, Ochoa TJ, Ruiz J. Virulence factors and mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in Shigella strains from periurban areas of Lima (Peru). Int J Med Microbiol. 2015 Jun-Aug;305(4-5):480-90.
  • Gomes C, Pons MJ, Magallon-Tejada A, Durand D, Lluque A, Mosquito S, Riveros M, Mercado E, Prada A, Ochoa TJ, Ruiz J. In vitro development and analysis of Escherichia coli and Shigella boydii azithromycin-resistant mutants. Microb Drug Resist. 2013 Apr;19(2):88-93.
  • Riveros M, Riccobono E, Durand D, Mosquito S, Ruiz J, Rossolini GM, Ochoa TJ, Pallecchi L. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in enteroaggregative Escherichia coli from infants in Lima, Peru. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2012 Jun;39(6):540-2.
  • Ochoa TJ, Chea-Woo E, Baiocchi N, Pecho I, Campos M, Prada A, Valdiviezo G, Lluque A, Lai D, Cleary TG. Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Trial of Bovine Lactoferrin for Prevention of Diarrhea in Children. J Pediatr. 2013 Feb;162(2):349-56.


  • PCR para E. coli diarrogénicas                                                                
  • PCR for Shigella, Salmonela y Campylobacter
  • Coprocultive
  • Inmunochromatography for rotavirus and adenovirus
  • ELISA for shiga toxina
  •  MIC of Vancomicina for S. aureus
  • PFGE for S. aureus, Salmonella, Klebsiella

Contact Info

Address: IMTAvH, 2do piso.

Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia

Av. Honorio Delgado 262

Urb. Ingeniería, San Martin de Porres. Lima - Perú.


Phone: +511 3190000 anexo 201330



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